The above timeline shows the rulers of Jerusalem from the overlordship of Babylon to the first world Zionist congress in 1897.
It thus covers the Times of the Gentiles referred to by Jesus.

The Saros cycle is the lifetime of a solar eclipse, and is currently estimated at 18.03 years. The earth goes round the sun, and the moon goes round the earth. From time to time the moon comes between the earth and the sun, and at such times we see the sun wholly or partially eclipsed. As the years go by, successive eclipses appear to cross the sun starting at different points, moving from the first partial eclipse just glancing the top edge, through progressively fuller partial eclipses until at last a total eclipse is seen, and then moving on through more partial eclipses covering less and less of the sun's disc each time until the eclipse moves off the lower edge of the sun completely and the life cycle of this eclipse is ended. This period has been known from ancient times as The Saros. It is astronomy, pure and simple, and has nothing to do with the foolish (and forbidden) cult of astrology.

The Sun and Moon were set in their places by God to rule (or regulate) the "signs and seasons (or times)"; they are HIS clock, and its ticking is therefore heard loudest in Jerusalem. The Saros was known to some of the ancients, though not to all. It was possibly known to Daniel, whose superior wisdom and knowledge so impressed Nebuchadnezzar. Its spelling in Hebrew is "Sharutz", and its Gematria is:


A word's Gematria is the arithmetic sum of its letters when they are used as numbers. The only languages in the history of the world which have used all the letters of their alphabet as numerals were Hebrew and Greek, the two languages of the Bible. The Romans used some of their letters as numerals, but only six of them, namely:


(NB: The use of M to signify "One thousand" is a modern monumental practice not used by the Romans themselves, for whom the number 1000 was signified by a double D).

Scholars of Biblical numerology are agreed that the number six in the Bible is associated with Man (e.g. Adam was created on the sixth day). Repetition of a number is usually taken to indicate emphasis, and the number of the beast of Revelation (666) is usually taken to indicate "Man in total rebellion against God". However it will be seen from all the above that the number 666 was clearly associated by God with the Saros before ever man was created, and then also with things Roman. This site endeavours to be strictly factual and does not normally attempt to draw conclusions, especially over-simplistic eschatological conclusions, which are left to the reader.

Some personal names have been found to have had gematria of 666, most notably the Roman emperor Nero (his name in Latin was "Nero Caesar"; in Greek it was "Neron Kaisar"; but when "Neron Kaisar" is written in Hebrew it becomes "Neron Kesar" and its gematria is 666). But please note:- Attempting to reckon the gematria of a word in any language other than Hebrew or Greek is meaningless and a complete waste of time.

As may be seen from the above chart, the periods of Roman rule over Jerusalem are each of 666 Sari. God who set the Sun, Moon, and all other heavenly bodies in motion, also determines the affairs of nations. He has set times and bounds to their dominion, and no man can alter them.

1. Dates quoted as BC and AD are reckoned from the actual birth of Christ as shown in the chronology section of this site. Other peoples' reckonings do not necessarily correspond exactly, but that is their problem.

2. The beginning of the late Babylonian empire is taken as 624 BC. This is because Nebuchadnezzar, son of Nabopolassar, established the empire in his hand during the year following his accession to the throne (in BC 625) by beating the Egyptian pharaoh Necho at Karchemish (recorded on a clay tablet now in the British Museum, tablet number BM 25127). Interestingly, this year is now believed by scholars also to have been the true year of the founding of Rome, so on both counts it has a good claim to mark the beginning of the Times of the Gentiles.

3. The Dome of the Rock, which Caliph Omar commanded to be built during his brief 10-day visit to Jerusalem in AD 636, still stands a monument to the national dishonour of Israel, whose enemies have fought one another over the possession of her most holy place while she herself was banished from it and ignored. And while the Dome of the Rock still stands the Times of the Gentiles cannot be considered fully to have run their course, though clearly they are in their final stages. As neither Israel nor Jerusalem was originally conquered in a single day, neither is their re-conquest to be accomplished in a single day. But God has put a full stop in heaven to the dominion of the Gentiles, and events upon earth must follow accordingly. Israel is now regaining her former wealth, strength, and glory; which process will be resisted by the nations but (in the expectation of this site) will be completed at the return of her Messiah.


1. Authorities differ as to the exact length of the Saros, which is a matter of the precise measurement of astronomical quantities which are very large indeed in everyday human terms. Such measurements, and the various calculations which depend upon them, always carry an element of uncertainty. A hundred years ago the length was measured at 18 years and 10.96 days; some modern authorities put it nearer 18 years and 11.05 days.

2. The dates of the start of the Babylonian empire and of Caliph Omar's activities in Jerusalem are subject to an uncertainty of the order of +/- 1 year each.

3. The modern state of Israel was proclaimed in 1947, but came formally into existence as a recognised nation state in 1948.

These uncertainties should be borne in mind when looking at the charts. However the general pattern is clear enough even if the edges are a bit fuzzy in places.

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